Course SOC 101: Sociological Theories
1. The Development of Sociology in the 19th Century
2. Karl Marx:
a) Transition from Pre-Capitalist to Capitalist Social Formations
b) Capitalism and Commodity Production
c) Class and Class Conflict
3. Max Weber:
a) Social Action: Basic Concepts and Terms
b) Methodologies of the Social Sciences
c) Religion and Social Change
4. Emile Durkheim:
a) Sociology as Science
b) The Division of Labour and Forms of Solidarity
c) Systems of Classification
(The final list of readings will be distributed by the course instructor in the first week of the semester)
1. Nisbet, R.A. 1967. The Sociological Tradition. London: Heinemann.
2. Abrams, P. 1968. The Origins of British Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
3. Marx, K. 1964. Pre-capitalist Economic Formations. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
4. Marx, K. 1954. Capital - Vol. I. Moscow: Progress Publishers. (Chapters 1, 10 and 14).
5. Marx, K. 1924. The Class Struggle in France (1848-1850). New York: New York Labour News.
6. Marx, K. and F. Engels. 1976. The Manifesto of the Communist Party, in Marx & Engels Collected Works - Vol. 6. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
7. Weber, M. 1978. Economy and Society: An Outline Interpretative Sociology (edited by G. Roth and C. Wittich) - Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Part-I, Chapters 1, 2).
8. Weber, M. 1949. The Methodology of the Social Sciences. New York: Free Press.
9. Weber, M. 2002. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Los Angeles: Blackwell Publishers.
10. Durkheim, E. 1982. The Rules of Sociological Method. London: Macmillan.
11. Durkheim, E. 1933. The Division of Labour in Society. Glencoe: The Free Press.
12. Durkheim, E. and M. Mauss. 1969. Primitive Classifications. London: Cohen & West.
Course SOC 102: Sociological Theory: Some Conceptual Issues
1. Self, Interaction, Event:
(a) Self and other in the social act
(b) Multiple Realities
(c) The ‘doing’ of social life
2. System and Structure:
(a) From action to systems
(b) Models and relationships
3. Discourse, Genealogy, Practice:
(a) The emergence of the subject and disciplinary power
(b) Habitus and embodiment
(c) Spatial practices
(The final list of readings will be distributed by the course instructor in the first week of the semester)
1. Mead, George Herbert, On Social Psychology, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964, Selected Chapters.
2. Luckmann, Thomas ed., Phenomenology and Sociology, Selected Readings, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1978, (Chap.12).
3. Schutz, Alfred, On Phenomenology and Social Relations, Selected Writings, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970, (72-78).
4. Schutz, Alfred, The Stranger: An Essay in Social Psychology,
in Collected Papers, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1964.
5. Berger, Peter L. and Thomas Luckmann, The social construction of reality, London: Allen Lane The Penguin Press, 1966, Part 1.
6. Peter Berger ‘Marriage and the social construction of reality: An exercise in microsociology of knowledge’ in in David Cheal (ed.) Family: Critical concepts in sociology, New York: Routledge, vol.1.
7. Goffman, Erving, Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, Prentice-Hall, 1963.
8. Garfinkel, Harold, Studies in Ethnomethodology, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1984, (Chaps: 1, 2, 5).
9. Simmel, George, On Individuality and Social Forms, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971, (Chaps: 3).
10. Radcliffe-Brown A.R., Structure and Function in Primitive Society, London: Cohen and West, 1971, (Chaps: 9, 10).
11. Levi-Strauss, Claude Structural Anthropology, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963, Selected chapters.
12. Levi-Strauss, Claude, The Savage Mind, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1966 Selected Chapters.
13. Parsons, Talcott, On Institutions and Social Evolution, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982, (Selected Chapters).
14. Luhmann, Niklas, The Differentiation of Society, New York: Columbia University Press, 1992, Chapter 3.
15. Rabinow, Paul ed., The Foucault Reader, London: Penguin Books, 1984 (ps. 51-120,170-289).
16. Foucault, Michel, The Archaeology of Knowledge, New York: Pantheon Books 1971, (Chaps. 1,2).
17. Bourdieu, Pierre, The Logic of Practice, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990 (Book 1, Chaps: 3,4,5,6,7,8).
18. Bourdieu, Pierre and Loic Wacquant, An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992, Selected chapters.
19. Butler, Judith, Gender trouble: feminism and the subversion of identity, London, Routledge, Chapter 1.
20. de Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendall, University of California Press, Berkeley 1984, Part III: Spatial Practices.
Course SOC 103: Sociology of Kinship
1. What is kinship?
(a) The formation of kinship as an object of study
(b) Is kinship universal?
2. Studying kinship
(a) Descent, residence and inheritance
(b) Marriage alliance
(c) Official and practical kinship
(d) Cultural constructions
3. Transformations in the family, marriage and property
(a) Family and marriage
(b) Kinship and Property
(c) Honour shame and violence
4. New areas in the study of kinship (any two in one semester)
(a) Reproductive technologies and reconfigured kinship
(b) Gay and lesbian kinship
(c) Kinship and genetics
(The final list of readings will be distributed by the course instructor in the first week of the semester)
1. Trautmann, T. R. Lewis Henry Morgan and the Invention of Kinship, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. (Selected chapters).
2. Gellner, Ernest. 1957. ‘Ideal language and kinship structure’, Philosophy of Science, vol. 24, No.3, pp. 235-42.
3. Rodney Needham. 1960. ‘Descent Systems and Ideal Language’ Philosophy of Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 96-101.
4. J. A. Barnes. 1961. ‘Physical and social kinship’ Philosophy of Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 296-299.
5. Schneider, David Schneider. 1984. A critique of the study of kinship, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, selected chapters.
6. Butler, Judith. ‘Is Kinship Always Already Heterosexual?’ Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies - Volume 13, Number 1, Spring 2002, pp. 14-44.
7. Parkin, Robert, and Linda Stone, (ed.). Kinship and Family: An Anthropological Reader, U.S.A.: Blackwell, 2000, selected chapters.
8. Carsten J. (ed.). Cultures of Relatedness: New Approaches to the Study of Kinship, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, selected chapters.
9. Levi-Strauss, Claude. The Elementary Structures of Kinship, London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1969.
10. Schneider, David M. American Kinship: A Cultural account, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.
11. Marilyn Strathern. 2005. Kinship, law and the unexpected: relatives are always a surprise, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Introduction, Chapter 1.
12. Uberoi, Patricia. Family, Kinship and Marriage in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994, Selected Chapters.
13. Bourdieu, Pierre. Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977, Selected sections.
14. Radcliffe-Brown, A.R. ‘Introduction’, in A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (ed.) African Systems of Kinship and Marriage, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1950 pp. 1- 85.
15. Fortes, Meyer. The Web of Kinship among the Tallensi, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1949.
16. Judith Stacey. 2003. ‘The making and unmaking of modern families’ in David Cheal (ed.) Family: Critical concepts in sociology, New York: Routledge, vol. 4.
17. Ulrich Beck and Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim 2004 ‘Families in a runaway world’ in Jacqueline Scott, Judith Treas and Martin Richards (eds.) The Blackwell Companion to sociology of families, Oxford: Blackwell.
18. Bob Simpson. 1998. Changing Families: An ethnographic approach to divorce and separation, Berg Publishers: Oxford. (Selected chapters).
19. Alison Shaw. 1997. ‘Women, the household and family ties: Pakistani migrants in Britain’ in Hastings Donnan & Selier 1997. Family and Gender in Pakistan: Domestic Organisation in a Muslim Society. New Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation.
20. Therese Locoh. 2003. ‘Social change and marriage arrangements: New types of union in Lome, Togo’ in David Cheal (ed.) Family: Critical concepts in sociology, vol. 1.
21. Yan, Yunxiang. 2003. Private Life under Socialism: Love intimacy, and family Change in a Chinese Village 1949-1999. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
22. Prem Chowdhry. 2010. Political economy of production and reproduction, New Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Selected chapters).
23. Veena Das. 1995. ‘National Honour and Practical Kinship’ in Critical Events, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
24. Goody, Jack. 1973. ‘Strategies of heirship’ Comparative studies in history and society, 15(1): 3-20.
25. Srimati Basu (ed.). Dowry and inheritance, New Delhi: Women Unlimited, Kali for Women, 2005, selected essays.
26. Engels, Frederick. The Origins of the Family, Private Property and the State, Moscow: Progress Publishers, (1884) 1948.
27. Weston, Kath. Families We Choose: Lesbians, Gays, Kinship, New York: Columbia University Press. 1991.
28. Gayatri Reddy. ‘The Bonds of Love: Companionate Marriage and the desire for intimacy among Hijras in Hyderabad, India’ in Jennifer Hirsch and Holy Wardlow (ed.) Modern Loves: The anthropology of romantic courtship and companionate marriage, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006
29. Kahn, Susan Martha. 2004. “Eggs and Wombs: The Origins of Jewishness.” In Robert Parkin and Linda Stone, eds. Kinship and Family: An Anthropological Reader. Oxford: Blackwell. Pages: 362-377.
30. Rapp, Rayna. 1991.‘Moral pioneers: Women, Men and Fetuses on a Frontier of Reproductive Technology’ In Micaela di Leonardo (ed.) Gender at the Cross Roads of Knowledge: Feminist Anthropology in the Postmodern Era. Berkley and Los Angeles, California. University of California Press. pp 383 – 396.
31. Kaja Finkler. ‘The Kin in the Gene: The Medicalization of Family and Kinship in American Society’, Current Anthropology , 2001, 42: 2.
32. Carol Smart. ‘Law and the Regulation of Family Secrets’, International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 2010, 24(3): 397-413.
33. Katie Featherstone et.al. Risky relations: Family kinship and the new genetics, New York: Berg Publishers, 2006.
Course SOC 104: Religion and Society
1. Classical Perspectives in the Study of Religion: Emile Durkheim, Max Weber and Bronislaw Malinowski.
2. The Making of Sacred Space and Sacred Time.
3. Interpreting Religious Symbols, Practices and Culture.
4. Religion in the Public Sphere: Religious Mobilization and the Secular.
5. Critiques of Religion.
1. Durkheim, E. 1915. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. London: Allen and Unwin.
2. Weber, M. 1963. The Sociology of Religion. Massachusetts: Beacon Press.
3. Malinowski, B. 1948. Magic, Science and Religion: Selected Essays. Massachusetts: Beacon Press.
4. Eliade, M. 1959. The Sacred and the Profane: the Nature of Religion. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
5. Eck, Diana. 1983. Banaras: City of Light. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
6. Peters, F.E. 1995. The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
7. Evans-Pritchard, E.E. 1976. The Notion of Witchcraft Explains Unfortunate Events. In Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pp. 63-83.
8. Uberoi, J.P.S. 1991. The Five Symbols of Sikhism. In T.N. Madan ed. Religion in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Pp. 320-333.
9. Geertz, C. 1973. The Interpretation of Culture. New York: Basic Books. (Selected Chapters).
10. Asad, T. 1982. Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. (Selected Chapters).
11. Mahmood, S. 2001. Rehearsed Spontaneity and the Conventionality of Ritual: Disciplines of Salat. American Ethnologist 28 (4) 827:853.
12. Fischer, M.N.J. 1980. Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
13. Asad, T. 2003. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press. (Selected Chapters).
14. Mines, D. 2005. Fierce Gods: Inequality, Ritual, and the Politics of Dignity in a South Indian Village. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
15. www.ssrc.org/programs/ the-immanent-frame-blog. 2007. The Immanent Frame: Secularism, Religion and the Public Sphere. (Any one debate per year).
16. Freud, S. 1989. The Future of an Illusion. London: Hogarth Press.
17. Freud, S. 1959. Obsessive Actions and Ritual Practices. London: The Hogarth Press.
18. Engels, F. 1956. The Peasant War in Germany. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.
19. Marx, K. 1962. Introduction to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. In Selected Works. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.
Course SOC 105: Political Sociology
1. Nature and Scope of Political Sociology:
a) Approaches to the Study of Politics
b) Political Systems and Other Social Systems
2. Some Basic Concepts:
a) Power and Authority
b) Consensus and Conflict
c) Elites and Masses
d) State and Stateless Societies
3. Local Structures of Power:
a) Varieties of Local Power Structure
b) Local Power Structures and the Wider Political System
4. State and Society under Capitalism:
a) State and the Class Structure
b) Citizenship and the Welfare State
5. State and Society under Socialism:
a) State Control and Institutional Autonomy
b) Ideology and Consensus
6. State and Society in India
1. Runciman, W. G. 1963. Social Science and Political Theory. Cambridge University Press. (Chapters 2 and 4).
2. Eisenstadt, S.N. (ed.). 1971. Political Sociology: A Reader. New York: Basic Books. (pp. 3-24).
3. Parsons, T. 1966 (2nd edition). ‘On the Concept of Political Power’, in R. Bendix and S. M. Lipset (eds.): Class Status and Power (240-66). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
4. Easton, D. 1957. ‘An Approach to the Analysis of Political Systems’, World Politics, 9(3): 383-400.
5. Gerth, H. H. and C. W. Mills (eds.). 1948. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
6. Weber, M. 1978. Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Vol. I, Chapter 3).
7. Fortes, M. and E. E. Evans-Pritchard (eds.). 1940. African Political Systems. London: Oxford University Press. (Preface and Introduction).
8. Gluckman, M. 1965. Politics, Law and Ritual in Tribal Society. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. (Chapters 3 and 4).
9. Schapiro, L. 1972. Totalitarianism. London: Pall Mall. (Chapters 2 and 3).
10. Baviskar, B. S. 1980. The Politics of Development: The Sugar Cooperatives in Maharashtra. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
11. Robinson, M. S. 1988. Local Politics. The Law of the Fishes. Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Chapters 1, 2 and 3).
12. Collins, R. 1988. ‘A Comparative Approach to Political Sociology’ in R. Bendix (ed.): State and Society (42-67). Berkeley: University of California Press.
13. Miliband, R. 1973. The State in Capitalist Society. London: Quartet Books.
14. Fainsod, M. 1969. How Russia is Ruled. Bombay: The Times of India Press. (Part III).
15. Lane, D. 1976. The Socialist Industrial State: Towards a Political Sociology of State Socialism. London: George Allen and Unwin.
16. Rudolph, L.I. and S.H. Rudolph. 1987. In Pursuit of Lakshmi, The Political Economy of The Indian State. Delhi: Orient Longman. (Part I).
17. Mills, C. W. 1956. The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press. (Chapters 12 and 13).
18. Marshall, T. H. 1964. Class, Citizenship and Social Development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Chapters 4, 13 and 14).
19. Friedrich, P. 1968. ‘The Legitimacy of Caciques’, in M.J. Swartz (ed.): Local Level Politics: Social and Cultural Perspectives. University of London Press.
20. Dahrendrof, R. 1968. Essays in the Theory of Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Chapters 4 and 5).
21. Pareto, V. 1985. The Mind and Society. New York: Dover Publications. (Pp. 1421-1432).
Course SOC 106: Economic Sociology
1. Introduction: Economy in Society
2. Production and Reproduction:
a) Concepts of Value, Labour, Property, Money and Rationality
b) The Production Process: The Structure and Experience of Work
3. Consumption and Exchange:
a) Gift Exchange
c) The Commodity Form
4. Economy and the State:
a) Planned Economies
b) Welfare Systems
c) The State and Global Markets
1. Godelier, M. 1972. Rationality and Irrationality in Economics. New York: Monthly Review Press. (selected chapters).
2. Sahlins, M. 1976. Culture and Practical Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Chapter 4).
3. Polanyi, K. 1975. The Great Transformation. New York: Octagon Press. (Chapters 5, 6, 14 and 15).
4. Mitchell, T. 1998. ‘Fixing the Economy’, Cultural Studies, 12(1).
5. Granovetter, M. 1985. ‘Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness’, American Journal of Sociology, 91: 481-510.
6. Bourdieu, P. 1998. Practical Reason. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. (Chapter 5).
7. Marx, K. 1974. Capital Vol. I. Moscow: Progress Publishers. (Part I and chapter 7).
8. Harvey, D. 1982. The Limits to Capital. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
9. Marx, K. 1963. ‘Alienated Labour’ in T.B. Bottomore (ed.): Karl Marx: Early Writings. New York: McGraw Hill.
10. Braverman, H. 1974. Labour and Monopoly Capitalism. New York: Monthly Review Press. (Selected chapters).
11. Thompson, E.P. 1967. ‘Time, Work Discipline and Industrial Capitalism’, Past and Present, 38: 56-97.
12. Ong, A. 1987. Spirits of Resistance and Capitalist Discipline: Factory Women in Malaysia. Albany: SUNY Press. (Chapters 5-10).
13. Shanin, T. 1972. The Awkward Class: Political Sociology of Peasantry in a Developing Society: Russia, 1910-1925. London: Clarendon Press. (Selected chapters).
14. Bourdieu, P. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Chapter 1, 4 [section on Symbolic Capital]).
15. Smart, A. 1993. ‘Gifts, Bribes and Guanxi: A Reconsideration of Bourdieu’s Social Capital’, Cultural Anthropology, 8(3).
16. Smelser, N. J. and R. Swedberg (eds.). 2005. The Handbook of Economic Sociology. (2nd Edition). Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Selections).
17. Mintz, S. 1985. Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York: Viking Penguin.
18. Taussig, M. 1980. The Devil and Commodity Fetishism in South America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
19. Gregory, C.A. 1997. Savage Money: The Anthropology and Politics of Commodity Exchange. Amsterdam: Harwood.
20. Breckenridge, C (ed.). 1995. Consuming Modernity: Public Culture in Contemporary India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Selected chapters).
21. Campbell, C. 1987. The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism, Basil Blackwell: Oxford. (Introduction and Part One).
22. Scott, J.C. 1998. Seeing Like a State. Yale, New Haven: University Press. (Chapter 5).
23. Bottomore, T.B. 1990. The Socialist Economy: Theory and Practice. New York: Harvester Wheat Sheaf. (Selected chapters).
24. Folbre, N. 1994. Who Pays for the Kids? Gender and the Structures of Constraint. London, New York: Routledge.
25. Petras, J. and H. Veltmeyer. 2001. Globalization Unmasked. London: Zed Books. (Chapters 1, 3, 6, 9).
26. Hann, C.M. (ed.). 1998. Property relations Renewing the Anthropological Tradition. Cambridge University Press. (Articles by C.M. Hann no. I, A. Macfarlane 5, M. Strathern 11).
Course SOC 107: Sociology of India-I
1. Development of Sociology and Social Anthropology of India; Approaches to the Study of Indian Society.
2. Caste-Structure and Change:
a) Tribe and Caste
b) Nature and Forms of Caste
c) Caste in Relation to Other Social Groups and Institutions (such as Religion, Economy and Polity)
d) Caste and Locality (Village, Town and Region)
3. Aspects of Rural Social Structure:
a) Nature of Village Community
b) Change in Village Community
c) Village, Region and Civilization
4. Family, Kinship and Marriage:
a) Nature of Family and Kinship
b) Marriage: patterns of Exchange and Presentation
c) Family, Economy and Law
5. Religion in India:
b) Social Organization
c) Religious Movements
1. Articles under the title ‘For a Sociology of India’, Contributions to Indian Sociology. (Old series and New series).
2. Srinivas, M.N. and M.N. Panini. 1973. ‘The Development of Sociology and Social Anthropology in India’, Sociological Bulletin, 22(2): 179-215.
3. Rao, M.S.A. 1974. ‘Introduction’, in Indian Council of Social Science Research, Review of Research in Sociology and Social Anthropology, Vol. I. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.
4. Cohn, B.S. 1987. An Anthropologist among Historians. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
5. Ghurye, G.S. 1963. The Scheduled Tribes. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.
6. Bose, N.K. 1975. The Structure of Hindu Society. Delhi: Orient Longman.
7. Beteille, A. 1986. ‘The Concept of Tribe with Special Reference to India’, European Journal of Sociology. 27: 297-318.
8. Dumont, L. 1980. Homo Hierarchicus. University of Chicago Press.
9. Shah, A.M. and I.P. Desai. 1988. Division and Hierarchy: An Overview of Caste in Gujarat. Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation.
10. Mayer, A. 1960. Caste and Kinship in Central India. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
11. Marriott, M. (eds.). 1961. Village India: Studies in the Little Community. Delhi: Asia Publishing House.
12. Srinivas, M.N. 1987. The Dominant Caste and Other Essays. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
13. Gough, K. 1981. Rural Society in South-East-India. Cambridge University Press.
14. Shah, A.M. 1973. The Household Dimension of the Family in India. Delhi: Orient Longman.
15. Articles on Kinship and Marriage. 1975. Contributions to Indian Sociology (N. S.), 9(2).
16. Dumont, L. 1957. Hierarchy and Marriage Alliance in South Indian Kinship. London: Royal Anthropological Institute.
17. Srinivas, M.N. 1987. The Cohesive Role of Sanskritization and other Essays. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
18. Marriott, M. (ed.). 1990. India Through Hindu Categories. Delhi: Sage Publications. (Chapter 1).
19. Uberoi, J.P.S. 1967. ‘On Being Unshorn’, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study. Vol. 4. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study.
20. Ahmad, I. (ed.). 1981. Ritual and Religion among Muslims in India. Delhi: Manohar.
21. Ghurye, G.S. 1953. The Indian Sadhus. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.
22. Caplan, L. 1987. Class and Culture in Urban India: Fundamentalism in a Christian Community. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
23. Fox, R.G. (ed.). 1977. Realm and Region in Traditional India. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.
SOC 108: Sociology of India II
1. Social Organisation of Agriculture
(a) Land, State and Agrarian Society
(b) Agrarian Crisis and Reform in Contemporary India
(c) Agrarian Movements
2: Aspects of Urban India
(a) Urban Society
(b) Occupation and Class
(c) The City: A case study of Delhi
3. Aspects of Politics and Society in Contemporary India
(a) Nationhood and Nationalism
(b) Secularism and communalism
(c) Marginal Communities: Discrimination and the Problems of Equality
4. Locations of Modernity
(a) Gender politics
1. R. E. Fykenberg (ed.) Land control and social structure in Indian History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.
2. Arnold, David and Guha, Ramchandra (ed.) Nature, Culture, Imperialism New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995. (Chapter 2).
3. Bina Agarwal: A field of One’s own: Gender and land rights in South Asia Cambridge: CUP, 1994. (Chapters 1, 3 and 9).
4. Bergmann, T. Agrarian Reform in India Delhi: Agricole Publishing Academy, 1984. (Chapter 1).
5. J.R. MacNeill: The Green revolution. In Mahesh Rangarajan (ed.) Environmental Issues in India: A Reader, Delhi: Pearson: 2007. (Chapter 12).
6. Vandana Shiva: The Violence of the Green Revolution: Third World Agriculture, Ecology and Politics. London: Zed Books, 1993. (Chapters 1 and 5).
7. Gill, A. and Singh L. 2006 ‘Farmers Suicides and Response of Public Policy: Evidence, Diagnosis and Alternatives’ Economic and Political Weekly, Review of Agriculture, June 30: 2762-2768.
8. Vasavi, A.R. Suicides and the Making of India’s Agrarian Distress, South African Review of Sociology, 2009, 40 (10, pp. 124-138).
9. Harnik Deol Religion and Nationalism in India, London: Routledge, 2000. (Chapter 5).
10. Deshpande, S. Mapping the ‘middle’: issues in the analysis of the 'non-poor' classes in India. In Mary E. John, Praveen Kumar Jha and Surinder S. Jodhka, (ed.) Contested Transformations. Changing Economies and Identities in Contemporary India. Tulika, 2006. (Chapter 13).
11. Nair, Janaki. 2006. 'Social Municipalism' and the new metropolis. In Mary E. John, Praveen Kumar Jha and Surinder S. Jodhka,(ed.) Contested Transformations. Changing Economies and Identities in Contemporary India. Tulika, 2006. (Chapter 8).
12. Breman, J. Footloose Labour. Cambridge. CUP, 1996. (Chapters 1-5).
13. Chitra Joshi: Lost Worlds: Indian Labour and its forgotten histories. New Delhi: Permanent Black, 2003. (Chapters 1 and 2).
14. Bhowmik, S. and N. More. 2001. Coping with Poverty: Ex-textile mill workers in Central Mumbai. EPW, Dec. 29, 2001, pp. 4822-27.
15. Stephen Blake: Shajahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India 1639-1739, CUP, 1991.
16. King, Anthony: Spaces of global cultures: architecture, urbanism, identity, Routledge, 2004. (Chapter 9: Transnational Delhi).
17. Tarlo, Emma: Unsettling Memories: Narratives of India’s Emergency (Permanent Black, 2003).
18. Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities; Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. (Chapter 1).
19. Partha Chatterjee. 1997. The Nation and its Fragments. Delhi: OUP. (Chapters 1-5)
20. Aloysius, G. 1997. Nationalism without a Nation. Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Chapters 5 and 8).
21. Baruah, Sanjib: India Against Itself: Assam and the Politics of Nationality, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.
22. Virmani, Arundhati, A National Flag for India: Rituals, Nationalism and the Politics of Sentiment, Permanent Black, 2008.
23. Bhargava, Rajeev (ed.) 1998. Secularism and its Critics. Delhi: Oxford University Press (Section IV).
24. Dirks, N. Castes of Mind. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 2003. Chapters 11, 12, and 13.
25. Marc Galanter. 1984. Competing Equalities. Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Chapters 3).
26. Sheth, D.L. 1999. Secularization of Caste and Making of the New Middle Class. EPW, Vol. 34, No. 34/35.pp. 2502-2510 (Aug 21-Sep.3, 1999).
27. Susana Devalle, Discourses of Ethnicity: Culture and Protest in Jharkhand, New Delhi: Sage, 1992.
28. Virginius Xaxa: State Society and Tribes (Chapters Introduction, 4 and 8).
29. Lata Mani: Contestious Traditions: The debate on Sati in Colonial India. In Kumkum Sangari and Sudesh Vaid (ed.) Recasting Women, New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1989.
30. Hawley, John, S.: Sati, The Blessing and the Curse: The Burning of Wives in India. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (Introduction; Chapters 1 and 4).
31. Sunder Rajan, Rajeshwari, Real and Imagined Women: Gender, Culture and Post-Colonialism, London: Routledge, 1993. (Chapter 1).
32. Narrain Arvind and Bhan Gautam (eds) Because I have a voice: Queer politics in India, New Delhi: Yoda Press, 2005. (Chapters 2 and 3).
33. van der Veer, Peter (ed) Nation and migration: the politics of space in the South Asian diaspora, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. (Chapter 3, 5, 7 and 8).
34. Chopra, R. Militant and Migrant:The Politics and Social History of Punjab, Delhi: routledge/Taylor and Francis, 2011. (Chapters 5 and 6).
Course SOC 209: Methods of Sociological Research
This is a revised version of an existing course, which converts it from a text oriented to practice oriented course. The aim is to enable students to frame a research question, fashion appropriate methods to address it, and derive relevant conclusions. At the same time, they will be exposed to different readings of the archive, of ethnography, visual anthropology etc, which will help them to understand the diversity of practice and critical thinking behind every method. For instance, in the section on archives, they will be exposed to different ways of constructing archives (colonial records, photos, pamphlets), subaltern versus Marxist readings of colonial records, and so on. In the second half of the course, they will be acquainted with different data sources on Indian society, and taught how to use them to research a particular question or geographical area.
1. Research Methods
b) Archival Methods
c) Oral History
d) Interviews/ Case Studies
e) Content analysis
f) Survey Research
g) Statistical Methods
h) Social Experiments
i) PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal)
j) Visual ethnography
2. Major Data Sources on Indian Society
c) National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO)
d) National Family Health Survey (NFHS) and other large data sets
e) Gazetteers, District handbooks, People of India Project
f) Film and Visual artifacts
50% of the evaluation in this course will be based on research projects carried out by the students, whether singly or in groups as part of the internal evaluation system, and 50% on an exam.
1. Sayer, Andrew. 1992. Method in Social Science (revised 2nd edition), Routledge.
2. Agresti, A. and B. Finley. 1997. Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences, Prentice Hall and Pearson Publishing, (Several editions available, under more than one imprint).
3. Ehrenberg, A.S.C. 1975. Data Reduction, Wiley Interscience, (later editions available).
4. H. Russell Bernard. 1998. ed. Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology, Sage.
5. E.H. Carr. 1961. What is History? Penguin Books.
6. Perks, Robert and Alistair Thomson eds. 1998. The Oral History Reader, Routledge, (selections).
7. Morphy, Howard and Morgan Perkins 2006 eds. The Anthropology of Art. A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, (selections).
8. M.N. Srinivas & M.N. Panini. 2002. Collected Essays, Oxford University Press, (two chapters on sociology and social anthropology).
9. AL Epstein & M.N. Srinivas. 1978. The Craft of Social Anthropology, Transaction Publishers.
10. N.G. Barrier ed. 1981. The Census in British India, Manohar.
Course SOC 210: Social Stratification
1. Understanding Social Stratification:
a) Social Stratification and Social Inequality
b) The Problem of Ethical Neutrality
c) Difference, Equality, and Inequality
d) The Structuring of Inequalities: The Significance of Ideas and Interests
2. Occupation, Social Stratification, and Class:
a) Classes as Non-antagonistic Strata
b) Classes as Antagonistic Groups
c) Social Mobility and Class Structure
3. Race and Ethnicity:
a) Natural Differences and Social Inequality
b) Identities, Nationalities, and Social Inequality
4. Gender and Stratification:
a) Patriarchy and the Subordination of Women
b) The Family as a Site of Inequality
c) Gender, Work, and Entitlements
d) The Community, the State and Patriarchy
1. Gordon, L. 1991. ‘On 'Difference’, Gender, 10: 91-111.
2. Gupta, D. 1991. ‘Hierarchy and Difference’, in Dipankar Gupta (ed.): Social Stratification (1-21). Delhi: Oxford University Press.
3. Dahrendorf, R. 1968. Essays in the Theory of Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Chapter 1).
4. Beteille, A. 1983. ‘Introduction’, in Andre Beteille (ed.): Equality and Inequality: Theory and Practice (1-27). Oxford University Press. Delhi.
5. Beteille, A. 1977. Inequality among Men. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
6. Mencher, J. 1991. ‘The Caste System Upside Down’, in Dipankar Gupta (ed.): Social Stratification (93-109). Delhi: Oxford University Press.
7. Meillassoux, C. 1973. ‘Are there Castes in India?’ Economy and Society, 2 (1): 89-111.
8. Kannabiran, Vasanth and K. Kannabiran. 2003. ‘Caste and Gender: Understanding Dynamics of Power and Violence’, in Anupama Rao (ed.): Gender & Caste (249-60). Delhi: Kali for Women.
9. Mendelsohn, O. and Vicziany M. 1998. The Untouchables: Subordination, Poverty and the State in Modern India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Chapters 1, 2 and 9).
10. Weber, M. 1978. Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Vol. I, Part-I, Chapter 4; Vol. II, Part-II, Chapter 9, Section 6).
11. Wesolowski, W. 1979. Classes, Strata and Power. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Chapters 1 and 3).
12. Wright, Olin E. 1985. Classes. London: Verso. (Chapter 3).
13. Marx, K. 1975. The Poverty of Philosophy, Moscow: Progress Publishers. (Chapter 2, Section 5).
14. Miliband, R. 1983. Class Power and State Power. London: Verso. (Chapter 1).
15. Erikson, R and J.H. Goldthorpe. 1992. The Constant Flux: A Study of Class Mobility in Industrial Societies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Chapters: 1 and 7).
16. Beteille, A. 1983. The Idea of Natural Inequality and other Essays. Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Pp. 7-32).
17. Levi-Strauss, C. 1958. Race and History. Paris: UNESCO.
18. Balibar, E. and Wallerstein. I. 1991. Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities. London: Verso. (Chapter 4).
19. Genovese, E.D. 1976. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Vintage Books. (Book I, Part-I; Book IV, pp. 587-97, 597-98).
20. Davis, A. 1982. Women, Race and Class. London: The Women's Press. (Chapter 11).
21. Oommen, T.K. 1997. Citizenship, Nationality and Ethnicity: Reconciling Competing Identities. Cambridge: Polity Press. (Parts I and III).
22. Tambiah, S. J. 1996. ‘The Nation-State in Crisis and the Rise of Ethnonationalism’, in Edwin N. Wilmsen and Patrick McAllister (ed.): The Politics of Difference: Ethnic Premises in a World of Power (124-43). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
23. Lerner, G. 1986. The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press. (Introduction, Chapters 1, 2 and Appendix).
24. Delphy, C and Leonard, D. 1992. Familiar Exploitation: A New Analysis of Marriage in Contemporary Western Societies. Cambridge: Polity Press. (Chapters 1, 4 and 9).
25. Sen, A. 1990. ‘Gender and Cooperative Conflicts’, in Irene Tinker (ed.): Persistent Inequalities (123-49). New York: Oxford University Press.
26. Palriwala, R. 2000. ‘Family: Power Relations and Power Structures’, in C. Kramarae and D. Spender (eds.): International Encyclopaedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge (Vo1.2: 669-74). London: Routledge.
27. Mazumdar, V and Sharma, K. 1990. ‘Sexual Division of Labour and the Subordination of Women: A Reappraisal from India’, in Irene Tinker (ed.): Persistent Inequalities (185-97). New York: Oxford University Press.
28. Chakravarti, U. 1995. ‘Gender, Caste, and Labour’, Economic and Political Weekly, 30(36): 2248-56.
29. Kapadia, K. 1996. Siva and Her Sisters: Gender, Caste, and Class in Rural South India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Part 3).
30. Chowdhry, P. 1997. ‘Enforcing Cultural Codes: Gender and Violence in Northern India’, Economic and Political Weekly, 32(19):10119-28.
Course SOC 211: Sociology of Development
I. Perspectives on the Study of Development:
a) Definitions and Indices
b) Liberal and Marxist Perspectives
c) Epistemological Critiques of Development
2. State and Market: Institutions and ideologies:
a) Planned Development and Society
b) Globalisation and Liberalization
3. The Micro-Politics of Development:
a) Transforming Communities: Maps and Models
b) Knowledge and Power in Development
c) Re-inventing Development: Subaltern Movements
1. Andrew, W. 1984. Introduction to the Sociology of Development. New Jersey: Humanities Press International.
2. Escobar, A. 1995. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Selected chapters).
3. Cooper, F. and Randall P. (eds.). 1997. International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Selected chapters).
4. Kabeer, N. 1994. Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought. London: Verso. (Selected chapters).
5. Illich, I. 1974. Energy and Equity. Calcutta: Rupa.
6. Dreze, J. 2000. ‘Militarism, Development and Democracy’, in Economic and Political Weekly, 35(14): 1171-1183.
7. Scott, J. C. 1998. Seeing Like a State. New Haven: Yale University Press.
8. Ferguson, J. 1994. The Anti-Politics Machine: “Development", Depoliticization and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
9. Ludden, D. 1992. ‘India’s Development Regime’ in N. Dirks (ed.): Colonialism and Culture, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
10. Bardhan, P. 1984. The Political Economy of Development in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
11. Deshpande, S. 1997. ‘From Development to Adjustment: Economic Ideologies, the Middle Class and 50 Years of Independence’, in Review of Development and Change, 11(2): 294-318.
12. Byres, T. 1981. ‘The New Technology, Class Formation and Class Action in the Indian Countryside’, in Journal of Peasant Studies, 8(4).
13. Gupta, A. 1998. Postcolonial Developments: Agriculture in the Making of Modern India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Selected chapters).
14. Dreze, J. and Sen, A. 1995. India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
15. McMichael, P. 1996. Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
16. Harris, N. 1995. The New Untouchables: Immigration and the New World Worker. London: Penguin. (Selected chapters).
17. Agrawal, A. 1999. ‘Community-in-conservation: Tracing the outlines of an enchanting concept’ in R. Jeffrey and N. Sundar (eds.): A New Moral Economy for India’s forests? Discourses of community and participation. New Delhi: Sage.
18. Tsing, A. 1999. ‘Becoming a Tribal Elder, and other Green Development Fantasies’ in Tania Murray Li (ed.): Transforming the Indonesian Uplands: Marginality, Power and Production. Amsterdam: Hardwood.
19. Li, T.M. 1999. ‘Compromising Power: Development, Culture and Rule In Indonesia’, Cultural Anthropology, 14(3): 295-322.
20. Moore, Donald, S. 1999. ‘The Crucible of Cultural Politics: Reworking “Development” in Zimbabwe’s Eastern Highlands’, American Ethnologist, 26(3): 655-689.
21. Baviskar, A. 1995. In the Belly of the River: Tribal Conflicts over Development in the Narmada Valley, Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Selected chapters).
22. Sen, A. 2000. Development as Freedom. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
23. Pieterse, J.N. 2001. Development Theory: Deconstructions/ Reconstructions. New Delhi: Vistaar Publications.
24. Frank, A.G. 1998. Re Orient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. Berkeley: University of California Press. 4th printing 2002.
Course SOC 212: Sociology of Symbolism
1. Principles of Semiology:
a) Sign and Value
b) Types of Symbols
c) Relations of Signification
2. Narrative Forms:
a) Structure of Narratives
b) Code of Message
3. Language, Text and Culture:
a) Ethnography as Text and Practice
b) Symbol, History, Event
4. Visuality and the Symbol:
a) Visual Symbols
b) Media, Technology, Representation
1. Saussure, F.D. 1966. Course in General Linguistics. New York: McGraw Hill. (Selected chapters).
2. Barthes. 1967. Elements of Semiology. New York: Hill & Wang.
3. Lacan. 1989. ‘The Agency of the Letter in the Unconscious or Reason Since Freud’, in J. Lacan (ed.). Ecrits. A Selection. Routledge: Tavistock. (Pp. 146-178).
4. Benveniste, E. 1971. ‘The Nature of the Linguistic Sign’, in E. Benveniste (ed.): Problems in General Linguistics. Coral Gables: University of Miami Press. (pp. 43-48).
5. Buchler. (ed.). 1955. Philosophical Writings of Peirce. New York: Dover Publications. (Pp. 74-119).
6. Simmel. 1984. On Women, Sexuality and Love. New Haven: Yale University Press.
7. Pomorska and Stephen (eds.). 1978. Roman Jakobson. Language in Literature. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (Pp. 47-120, 318-367).
8. Propp, V. 1968. Morphology of the Folktale. Texas: University of Texas Press. (Pp. 3-65).
9. Levi–Strauss. 1973. ‘Structure and Form: Reflections on a Work by Vladimir Propp’, in C. Levi–Strauss (ed.). Structural Anthropology Vol. 2 (115-145). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
10. Levi-Strauss. 1986. The Raw and the Cooked Introduction to a Science of Mythology. Middlesex: Penguin Books. (Selected chapters).
11. Greimas, A.J. 1971. ‘The Interpretation of Myth: Theory and Practice’, in E.K. Maranda (ed.). Structural Analysis of Oral Tradition (81-121). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
12. Pels, P. and Oscar, S. (eds.). 1999. Colonial Subjects, Essays on the Practical History of Anthropology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. (Selected chapters).
13. Quinn, M. 1994. The Swastika. Constructing the Symbol. London: Routledge.
14. Werbner, R. (ed.). 1998. Memory and the Postcolony: African Anthropology and the Critique of Power. London: Zed Books. (Chapters 1, 2, 3).
15. Bourdieu, P. 1990. The Logic of Practice. Cambridge: Polity Press. (Chapters 5 and 6)
16. Perrow, C. 1999. Normal Accidents. Living with High – Risk Technologies. New Jersey : Princeton University Press. (Pp. 3-169, 353-387).
17. Kapur, G. 2000. When was Modernism, Essays on Contemporary Cultural Practice in India, New Delhi: Tulika. (145-178, 233-264).
18. Latour, B. 1999. Pandora’s Hope. Essays on the Reality of Science Studies. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
19. Miller, D. (ed.). 1995. Worlds Apart. Modernity through the Prism of the Local. London: Routledge. (Chapters 8 and 10).
20. Cavell, S. 1971. The World Viewed. Reflections on the Ontology of Film. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (Pp. 3-36).
21. Barthes, R. 1977. ‘Rhetoric of the Image’, in R. Barthes (ed.): Image–Music Text (32-51). Fontana/Collins: Glasgow.
22. Benjamin, W. 1973. ‘The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction’ in W. Benjamin (ed.). Illuminations. Fontana: Glasgow.
Course SOC 213: Industry and Society
1. Industrialisation, industrialism and post industrial society.
2. Employee organizations: Blue Collar, White Collar and Managers.
3. Work organization and Alienation:
a) Machine Tending, Assembly Line, and Process Industry
b) Job Re-design and Enrichment
c) New Technologies: Emerging Forms of Work and Trade Union Response
4. Industrial Conflict and its Resolution:
a) Nature of Industrial Conflict
b) Collective Bargaining
c) Participation: Simpler Forms; Codetermination; Self Management and Cooperation
I. Kerr, C. et. al. 1973. Industrialism and Industrial Man, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
2. Kumar, K. 1973. Prophecy and Progress, London: Allen Lane.
3. Macarthy, E. A. J. 1973. (ed.), Trade Unions, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
4. Poole, M. 1982. Theories of Trade Unionism: A Sociology for Industrial Relations, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
5. Hyman, R. and Robert, P. (eds.). 1985. The New Working Class: White Collar Workers and their Organizations, London: MacMillan.
6. Hyman, R. 1975. Industrial Relations: A Marxist Introduction, London: MacMillan.
7. Gorz, A. 1982. Farewell to the Working Class, Boston: South End Press.
8. Forester, T. 1985. The Information Technology Revolution, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
9. Knight, D. et. al. 1985. Job Redesign, Hants: Gower.
10. Clarke, T. and L. Clements (eds.). 1977. Trade Unions Under Capitalism, London: Fontana.
11. Costes, K. and T. Topham. 1979. The New Unionism, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
12. Hunnis. G. et. al. 1973. Workers' Control: A Reader on Labour and Social Change, New York, Vintage.
13. Gyllenhammer, P.G. 1977. People at Work, Mass: Addison Wesley.
14. Braverman, H. 1979. Labour and Monopoly Capital. The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, Trivandrum: Social Scientist Press.
15. Sheth, N. R. 1982. Social Framework of an Indian Factory, Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Co.
16. Ramaswamy, E. A. 1984. Power and Justice: The State in Industrial Relations, Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Course SOC 214: Gender and Society
I. Gender in Sociological Analysis:
a) Approaches to the Study of Gender
b) Gender Studies as a Critique of Ethnography and Theory
2. Reproduction, Sexuality and Ideology:
a) Biology and Culture
b) Concepts of Male and Female
c) Life Cycle
3. Family, Work and Property:
a) Production and Reproduction
b) Work and Property
c) Family and Household
4. The Politics of Gender:
a) Complementarity, Inequality, Dependence, Subordination
b) Feminist Theories and Feminist Politics
1. Mead, M. 1935. Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies, New York: William Morrow.
2. Engels, F. 1972. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and, the State, London: Lawrence and Wishart.
3. De Beauvoir, S. 1983. The Second Sex, Harmondsworth: Penguin. (Book Two).
4. Rosaldo, M.Z. and L. Lamphere (ed.). 1974. Women, Culture and Society, Stanford: Stanford University Press, (Articles by Rosaldo, Chodorow, Ortner; other articles may be used for illustration).
5. Reiter, R. R. (ed.). 1975. Towards an Anthropology of Women, New York: Monthly Review Press, (Articles by Draper and Rubin; other articles may be used for illustration).
6. Barrett, M. 1980. Women’s Oppression Today, London: Verso. (Chapters 1 to 4, and 6).
7. MacCormack, C. and M. Strathern (ed.). 1980 Nature, Culture and Gender, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Chapter I).
8. Douglas. M. 1970. Purity and Danger, Harmondsworth: Penguin. (Chapter 9).
9. Yalman, N. 1963. “On the Purity of Women in the Castes of Ceylon and Malabar”, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, pp. 25-58.
10. Hershman, P. 1977. “Virgin and Mother” in I.M. Lewis (ed.). Symbols and Sentiments: Cross-Culture Studies in Symbolism, London: Academic Press.
11. Vatuk, S. 1982. “Purdah Revisited: A Comparison of Hindu and Muslim Interpretations of the Cultural Meaning of Purdah in South Asia”, in H. Papanak and G. Minault (eds.). Separate World: Studies of Purdah in South Asia, Delhi: Chanakya.
12. Boserup, E. 1974. Women's Role in Economic Development, New York: St. Martin's Press. (Part I).
13. Meillassoux, C. 1981. Maidens, Meals and Money, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Part I).
14. Young, K. C. Wolkowitz and R. McCullagh (eds.). 1981. Of Marriage and the Market: Women's Subordination in International Perspective, London: CSE Books, (Articles by O. Harris, M. Molyneux).
15. Hirschon, R. 1984. “Introduction: Property, Power and Gender Relations” in R. Hirschon (ed.). Women and Property. Women as Property, Beckenham: Croom Helm.
16. Uberoi, J. P. S. 1961. “Men, Women and Property in Northern Afghanistan” in S.T. Lokhandawala (ed.). India and Contemporary Islam, Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study. Pp. 398-415.
17. Sharma, U. 1980. Women, Work and Property in North West India, London: Tavistock.
18. Ardener, E. 1975. “Belief and the Problem of Women” and “The Problem Revisited”, in S. Ardener (ed.). Perceiving Women, London: Malaby Press.
19. Leacock, E. 1978. “Women’s Status in Egalitarian Societies: Implications for Social Evolution”, Current Anthropology, 19(2), pp. 247-75.
20. Rogers, S.C. 1975. “Female Forms of Power and the Myth of Male Dominance: A Model of Female/Male Interaction in Peasant Societies”, American Ethnologist, 2(4), pp. 727-56.
21. Jaggar, A. 1983. Feminist Politics and Human Nature, Brighton: The Harvester Press.
Course SOC 215: Sociology of Education
1. The Idea of Education:
a) What is a ‘Good’ Education?
b) Basic Education
c) Democracy and Education
d) Education and Liberation
e) Education in contemporary times
2. Education and Society:
a) Socialization and Education
b) Cultural and Social Reproduction
c) Hegemony and Domination
c) Agency, Resistance and Relative Autonomy
3. Schooling practices:
a) An Autobiographical Approach
b) School Culture
c) Curriculum and Classroom Practices
d) Counter-School Culture
4. The State, Education and Equality:
a) Education and Social Stratification
b) Privatisation of Education
d) Aspects of Higher Education
- M.K. Gandhi. 1977. Basic Education, in The Collected Works. Ahmedabad: Navajivan.
- Gandhi, M.K. 1997. Hind Swaraj and other writings. (ed. Anthony Parel) Columbia University Press. Foundation Books.
- John Dewey (1916). Democracy and Education. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. New York: Free Press.
- Paulo Friere.1970. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum.
- Emile Durkheim, 1956. Education and Society. New York: Teachers College Press.
- EmileDurkheim1961. Moral Education. New York: The Free Press.
- Louis Althusser. 1971. Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses, in L. Althusser (ed.) Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, London: New Left Books.
- Pierre Bourdieu and J.C. Passeron 1978. Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. London: Sage. (Book 1).
- Pierre Bourdieu. 1986. The Forms of Capital. In J.G Richardson (ed.) Handbook of Research in the Sociology of Education. New York, Greenwood Publishers.
- Pierre Bourdieu. 2008. A Sketch for Self-Analysis. Polity Press.
- Basil Bernstein. 1996. Pedagogy. Symbolic Control and Identity. London: Taylor and Francis. (Chapter 1).
- Deborah. Reed-Danahay. 1996. Education and Identity in Rural France. The Politics of Schooling. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
- Peter McLaren, 1986. Schooling as a Ritual Performance: Towards a Political Economy of Educational Symbols and Gestures. New York: Routledge.
- Meenakshi Thapan, 2006 (1991). Life at School. An Ethnographic Study. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
- Bradley A.U. Levinson and Mica Pollack (eds.) 2011. A Companion to the Anthropology of Education. Blackwell Publishing.
- P. E. Willis. 1977. Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. Surrey, England: Saxon House.
- Veronique Benei. 2009. Schooling India. Hindus, Muslims and the Forging of Citizens. New Delhi, Orient Blackswan.
- M. W. Apple, 1982. Cultural and Economic Reproduction in Education: Essays on class. ideology and the state. London: RKP. (Chapters 1, 9).
- Krishna Kumar. 2001. Prejudice and Pride. School histories of the freedom struggle in India and Pakistan. New Delhi, Penguin Books
- Krishna Kumar. 2004. What is Worth Teaching? Delhi, Orient Blackswan.
- William E. Pinar 2015. (ed.) Curriculum Studies in India. Intellectual Histories. Personal Circumstances. New York, Palgrave Macmillan.
- Craig Jeffrey, Roger Jeffery and Patricia Jeffrey. 2008. School and madrasah education: gender and the strategies of Muslim young men in rural north India. Compare. A Journal of Comparative and International Education. 38, 5: 581-593.
- Geetha Nambissan, and Srinivas Rao. 2013. Sociology of Education. Changing Concerns and Emerging Concerns. Delhi, Oxford University Press.
- Sukhdeo Thorat and Katherine Neuman (eds.) 2012. Blocked by Caste. Economic Discrimination in Modern India. OUP India Paperback. (Chs. 8 and 9).
- Meenakshi Thapan (ed.) 2014. Ethnographies of Schooling in Contemporary India. New Delhi, SAGE Publications.
- Meenakshi Thapan (ed.) (2015) Education and Society. Themes, Perspectives, Practices. Oxford in India readings in Sociology and Social Anthropology, New Delhi, Oxford University Press.
Course SOC 216: Sociology of Organisations
1. Introduction -Sociology and Organisation Studies:
(a) Tracing a History
(b) Modes of Classification
2. Models of Rationality:
(a) Types of Rationality
(b) Styles of Bureaucratic Organisation
(c) Organisations as Systems of Communication
3. Work, Interaction, Organisation:
(a) Organisations as Systems of Interaction
(b) Formal and Informal
(c) Self and the Organisational System.
4. Organisation and Culture:
(a) Universal and Local Dimensions
(b) Critiques of Organisational Culture: Gender, Emotions, and Indigenous Perspectives
1. Grusky, O. and Miller, G.E. 1970. The Sociology of Organisations: Basic Studies. New York: Free Press. (Part-I).
2. Wright, S. (ed.) 1994. Anthropology of Organisations. London: Routledge. (Chapters 1, 4 and 6).
3. Roethlisberger, F. & William D. 1939. Management and the Worker. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (Selections).
4. Butler, Judith 2004. Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence. London: Verso (Chapter 3).
5. Perrow, C. 1987. ‘The Short and Glorious History of Organisational Theory’, in P. Wright and S. Robbins (eds.) Organisation Theory: Readings and Cases. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
6. Etzioni, A. 1961. Comparative Analysis of Complex Organisations: On Power. Involvement and their Correlates. New York: Free Press.
7. Blau, P.M. and Scott, W.H. 1962. Formal Organisations. San Francisco: Chandler. (Introduction).
8. Braverman, H. 1974. Labour and Monopoly Capital. New York: Monthly Review Press.
9. Weber, M. 1978. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Relevant sections).
10. Blau, P.M. 1964. ‘Social Exchange’, in Encyclopedia of Social Sciences. Vol. 7.
11. Luhman, Niklas 1993. Risk. A Sociological Theory. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. (Chapter 5).
12. March, J.G. and Simon, H.A. 1958. Organisations. New York: Wiley.
13. Luhman, N. 1982. The Differentiation of Society. New York: Columbia University Press. (Chapter 4).
14. Blau, P.M. 1965. The Dynamics of Bureaucracy: A Study of Interpersonal Relations in Two Government Agencies. Chicago: University of Chicago.
15. Crozier, M. 1964. The Bureaucratic Phenomenon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
16. Salaman, J.G. and Thompson, K. (eds.) 1973. People and Organisations. London: Longman.
17. Bauman, Z. 2001. ‘The Uniqueness and Normality of the Holocaust’, in Organisation Studies: Critical Perspectives in Business and Management, edited by Warwick Organizational Behaviour Staff. Vol. IV. London: Routledge.
18. Goffman, E. 1961. Asylums. New York: Doubleday.
19. Rhodes, L. 1991. Emptying Beds: The Work of an Emergency Psychiatric Unit. California: University of California Press.
20. Perrow, C. 1999. Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
21. Caton, Steven C. 2010 ‘Abu Ghraib and the Problem of Evil.’ In Ordinary Ethics. Anthropology, Language and Ethics. Ed. Michael Lambek. New York: Fordham University Press (165-184).
22. Hochschild, A.R. 1983. The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.
23. Handelman Don 1990 Models and Mirrors: Towards and Anthropology of Public Events. New York: Bergan Books. (Chapter 5).
24. Chatterji, Roma and Deepak Mehta 2007. Living with Violence. An Anthropology of Events and Everyday Life. Delhi: Routledge (Selected chapters).
25. Mumby, D.K. and Putnam, L.L. 1992. ‘The Politics of Emotion: A Feminist Reading of Bounded Rationality’, in Organisation Studies: Critical Perspectives in Business and Management. edited by Warwick Organizational Behaviour Staff. Vol. III. London: Routledge.
26. Hilhorst, D. 2003. The Real World of NGOs: Discourse, Diversity and Development London: Zed Books.
Course SOC 217: Population and Society
1. Introduction to population studies and classical approaches:
a) Relation with sociology and anthropology.
b) Population structures and population dynamics
c) Malthus and Marx
d) Durkheim and Halbwachs
a) Demographic transition theory
b) Approaches to Fertility
c) Reproductive technologies, sex selection and Infertility
a) Epidemiological transition Model
b) Approaches to mortality
a) Migration as a demographic process
b) Approaches to migration
5. Population politics and policies:
a) Governmentality and biopower
b) Census and identity
c) Gender and religion
The Course teacher may add a few extra ethnographic Studies to the reading list every year.
The final list of readings will be distributed by the course instructor in the first week of the semester.
- Dudley F. Poston and Leone F. Bouvier 2010 Population and society: An introduction, Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.
- Susan Greenhalgh 1996 ‘The social construction of population science: An intellectual, institutional and political history of the twentieth century demography’ in Comparative studies in society and history, 38(1): 26-66.
- D. I. Kertzer and Tom Fricke (eds.) 1997. Anthropological demography: Towards a new synthesis, Chicago: University of Chicago Press (Selected chapters).
- Alaka Basu 2011 ‘Demographic dividend revisited: The mismatch between age and economic activity-based dependency ratios’, Economic and political weekly, 46(39): 53-58.
- Thomas Malthus 1798 An Essay on the principle of population, Any Edition (Selected Chapters).
- Karl Marx 1973 (1857-1861) Grundrisse, London: Penguin, Section titled ‘The concept of the free labourer contains the pauper. Population and overpopulation etc.’, pp 604-607, available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1857/ grundrisse/ch12.htm#p604.
- Karl Marx 1867 Capital, Volume 1, Moscow: progress Publishers, Chapter 25, footnote 6, available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ ch25.htm.
- Frederick Engels 1845 The condition of the working class in England (Chapter titled ‘The attitude of the bourgeoisie towards the proletariat’) available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/arx/works/1845/condition-working-class/ch13.htm.
- Mahmood Mamdani 1972 The myth of population control: Family, caste and class in an Indian village, New York: Monthly Review Press.
- Emile Durkheim 1984 Division of labour in society, London: Macmillan. (Part II, chapter 2 ‘The causes’).
- Emile Durkheim, H. L. Sutcliffe, John Simons 1992 “Suicide and Fertility: A Study of Moral Statistics” European Journal of Population / Revue Européenne de Démographie, 8(3): 175-197.
- Maurice Halbwachs 1960 Population and society: Introduction to social morphology, Glencoe: Free Press.
- Jennifer Johnson-Hanks 2008 ‘Demographic transitions and modernity’ Annual review of anthropology, 37:301–15.
- Susan Greenhalgh ed. 1995 Situating fertility: Anthropology and demographic inquiry, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Selected chapters).
- Tulsi Patel 2006 (1994) Fertility behaviour: Population and society in a Rajasthan village, Delhi: Oxford University Press (Selected Chapters).
- Tim Dyson and Mick Moore 1983 ‘On kinship structure, female autonomy, and demographic behavior in India’, Population and development review, 9(1): 35-60.
- Marcia C. Inhorn and Frank van Balen 2002 Infertility around the globe: New thinking on childlessness, gender and reproductive technologies (Selected chapters).
- Tulsi Patel ed. 2007. Sex selective abortion in India. New Delhi: Sage. (Selected chapters).
- Nancy Scheper-Hughes (ed.) 1987 Child survival: Anthropological perspectives on the treatment and maltreatment of children. (Selected chapters).
- Paul Farmer 2004 ‘An anthropology of structural violence’ Current Anthropology, 45(3): 305-325.
- Amartya Sen 1993 ‘The economics of life and death’ Scientific American, May, 40-47.
- Amartya Sen 1990 ‘More than 100 million women are missing’, The New York review of books. December.
- Lee, Everett S. 1966 ‘A Theory of Migration’ Demography, 3(1):47-57.
- Hania Zlotnik 2006 ‘Theories of International Migration’ inGraziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, and Guillaume Wunsch(ed.) Demography: Analysis and synthesis, Volume II, London: Academic Press, pp. 293-306.
- Caroline B. Brettell. 2000. ‘Theorizing migration in anthropology: The social construction of networks, identities, communities, and globalscapes.” In Caroline B. Brettell & James F. Hollifield(eds.) Migration theory: Talking across disciplines, New York and London: Routledge, pp. 97-135.
- Caroline Brettell 2003 Anthropology and Migration: Essays on Transnationalism, Ethnicity and identity, Walnut Creek CA, Altamira Press, (Chapter 2: Migration stories).
- Sushma Joshi 2001 ‘Cheli-Beti': Discourses of trafficking and constructions of gender, citizenship and Nation in modern Nepal’ South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 24(1): 157 – 175.
- Michel Foucault Security, territory, population: Lectures at the College de France 1977-8, Palgrave: Macmillan (Selected Parts).
- Ian Hacking 1991 ‘How Should We Do the History of Statistics?’ in G. Burchell et al (eds.) The Foucault Effect, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Ch. 9.
- Mark Maguire 2009 ‘The Birth of Biometric Security’ Anthropology Today. 25(2): 9-14.
- Sarah Hodges 2004 ‘Governmentality, population and reproductive family in modern India’, Economic and political weekly, 39(11): 1157-1163.
- Emma Tarlo 1995 ‘From victim to agent: Memories of emergency from a resettlement colony in Delhi’ Economic and political weekly, 30(46): 2921-28.
- David I Kertzer and Dominique Arel 2001 Census and identity: The politics of race, ethnicity and language in national censuses, Cambridge University Press, chapters 1, 2, 3, 7.
- Sumit Guha 2013 Beyond caste: Identity and power in south Asia, past and present, Leiden: Brill, Chapter 5, (Ruling, identifying and counting: Knowledge and power in eighteenth century India.
- Nilanjana Chatterjee and Nancy Riley 2001 ‘Planning an Indian modernity: The gendered politics of family planning’ Signs, 26(3): 811-45.
- Patricia Jeffery and Roger Jeffery 2006 Confronting Saffron Demography: Religion fertility and women’s status in India, New Delhi: Three Essays Collective. (Essay 1).
Course SOC 218: Urban Sociology
1. Sociological perspectives on the City:
a) Globalisation and the City
b) Politics and Urban Planning
c) Urban Lives
d) Urban Violence
2. Sacred landscapes and Urban life:
a) The Sacred in the City
b) Formations and Transformations of Space
c) Ritual Processions and Urban Networks
3. Geographies of Space, Place, Identity:
a) Neighbourhoods and Social Networks
b) Contested Space and Identity
c) Aesthetics and Architecture
4. The Underlife of Cities:
a) The Underclass in the City
b) Sexual Geography of the City
c) Urban Street Cultures
1. Sassen, S. 2000. Cities in a World Economy. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
2. Hannerz, U. 1993. “The Culture Role of World Cities” in Cohen, Anthony P. and Fukui, Katsuyoshi (eds.) Humanizing the City: Social Contexts of Urban Life at the Turn of the Millennium. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Pp. 69-83.
3. Mort, F. 1996. Cultures of Consumption: Masculinities and Social Space in Late Twentieth-Century Britain. London and New York: Routledge. (Part III: Topographies of Taste, Place, Space and Identity).
4. Reps, J.W. 1967. Monumental Washington: The Planning and Development of the Capital Center. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
5. Holston, J. 1989. The Modernist City: An Anthropological Critique of Brasilia. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
6. Amit-Talai, V. and Lustiger-Thaler, H. 1994. (eds.). Urban Lives: Fragmentation and Resistance. Toronto: McLelland & Stewart.
7. Bourdieu, P. 2000. The Weight of the World: Social Suffering in Contemporary Society. Translated Priscilla Panrkhurst Ferguson, Stanford: Stanford University Press.
8. Feldman, A. 1991. Formations of Violence: The Narrative of the Body and Political Terror in Northern Ireland. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Chapters 3 and 4).
9. Hansen, T. B. 2001. Urban Violence in India: Identity, ‘Mumbai’, and the Postcolonial City. New Delhi: Permanent Black. (Chapter 3).
10. Duncan, J. S. 1990. The City as Text: The politics of landscape Interpretation in the Kandyan Kingdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Chapter 1).
11. Hertel, B. and Cynthia, A. H. (eds.). 1986. Living Banaras: Hindu religion in cultural context. New York: Suny Press.
12. Levy, R. I. 1990. Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
13. Kaur, R. 2003. Performative Politics and the Cultures of Hinduism: Public Uses of Religion in Western India, New Delhi: Permanent Black.
14. Fishman, R. 1987. Bourgeois Utopias: The Rise and Fall of Suburbia. New York: Basic Books.
15. Baumann, G. 1996. Contesting Culture: Discourse and Identity in Multiethnic London, Cambridge: CUP.
16. Gullestad, M. 1984. Kitchen Table Society: A Case Study of the Family Life and Friendships of Young Working-Class Mothers in Urban Norway. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.
17. Espinoza, V. 1999. “Social Networks among the Urban Poor: Inequality and Integration in a Latin American City”, in Barry Wellman (ed.). Networks in a Global Village: Life in Contemporary Communities. Boulder, CO: West view Press, pp. 147-184.
18. Appadurai, A. 2004. “The capacity to aspire: Culture and terms of recognition” in Vijayendra Rao and Michael Walton (eds.) Culture and Public Action. Delhi: Permanent Black.
19. Duncan, J. (with Nancy Duncan). 2004. Landscapes of Privilege: The Politics of the Aesthetic in an American Suburb, New York: Routledge.
20. Chauncy, G. 1994. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture and the making of Gay New York: Basic Books.
21. Hertz, B.S. and Knauer, Lisa M. 1997. “Queer Spaces in New York City: Places of Struggle, Places of Strength”, in Gordon Brent Ingram, Anne-Marie Bouthillette, and Yolanda Retter, (eds.). Queers in Space: Communities, Public Places, Sites of Resistance Seattle. WA: Bay Press. Pp. 356-370.
22. Canaan, J. 1996. “One thing leads to another: Drinking, fighting and working class masculinities”, in Martin Mac an Ghaill (ed.) Understanding masculinities, Social relations and cultural arenas. Buckingham: Philadelphia: Open University Press. Pp. 114-125.
23. De Certeau, M. 1995. “Practices of Space”, in Marshall Blonsky (ed.) Signs. Baltimore, MD: Johnson Hopkins University Press. Pp. 122-145.
24. Naidu, R. 1990. Old Cities, New Predicaments: A Study of Hyderabad. Delhi: Sage.
Course SOC 219 (a): Area Study: South-East Asia
1. Ecological Background of South-East Asia.
2. Traditional Kinship and Social Organization.
3. Comparative Sociology of Plural Society and Economy.
4. Colonial policy, Indigenous Political Systems and Social Change.
5. Modernization, Religion, and Protest.
1. Burling, Robins. 1965. Hill Farms and Paddy Fields: Life in Mainland South-East Asia, Englewood-Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
2. Furnivall, J.S. 1956. Colonial Policy and Practice: A Comparative Study of Burma, Netherlands and India, London: Cambridge University Press, 1948 (Reprinted New York: New York University Press).
3. Goodenough, W. 1955. “A Problem in Malay-Polynesian Social Organization”, American Anthropologist, 57.
4. Gullick, J. M. 1948. Indigenous Political Systems of Western Malaya, London: Athlone Press.
5. Kantodirjo. 1973. Protest Movement in Rural Java: A Study of Agrarian Unrest in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, London: Oxford University Press.
6. Murdock, G.P. 1961. (ed.). Social Structures in South-East Asia, London: Tavistock.
7. Nash, Manning. 1965. Golden Road to Modernity: Village Life in Contemporary Burma, New York: John Wiley.
8. Rassers, W. H. 1957. “On the Meaning of Javanese Drama”, in Panji, the Culture Hero: A Structural Study of Religion in Java, Martinus Nijhoff; The Hague. Pp. 1-62.
9. Wertheim, W.H. 1956. Indonesian Society in Transition: The Changing Status System, The Hague, Bandung: W. Van Hoeve Ltd.
Course SOC 219 (b) South West-Asia
1. South-West Asia as an Object of Enquiry
a) Ecology: Boundaries, Frontiers, Fields
b) History and Politics
c) Local Societies and Universalising Religion
2. Political Ideology and Religious Practices: Orthodox and Heterodox
a) Textual Analysis
b) Text and Practice
3. Religious Ideology and Social Change
a) Political Islam and Problems of State Formation
b) Islam and Resistance: Afghanistan and Iran
c) Islam and Legitimacy: Iran and Pakistan
4. Feud and Violence
a) Deeds and Words
b) Segmentary Theory
c) Honour and Shame
1. Zein. A.H.E. 1977. ‘Beyond Ideology and Theology: The Search for an Anthropology of Islam’. Annual Review of Anthropology.
2. Fredrik, B. (ed.). 1969: Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organisation of Cultural Difference. Oslo: University Press: Introduction, chapter VII.
3. Uberoi. J.P.S. 1972. ‘The Structural Concept of the Asian Frontier’. Mimeograph. Ratan Tata Library.
4. Louis, D. 1984. Tribal Warfare in Afghanistan and Pakistan: A Reflection of the Segmentary Lineage System’ in Ahmed and Hart (eds.). Islam in Tribal Societies. London: RKP.
5. Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Vintage.
6. Derek, G. 2004: The Colonial Present, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
7. Anderson. Jon 1983. ‘Khan and Khel in the Dialectics of Pakhtun Tribalism’. In R. Tapper (ed.): The Conflict of Tribe and State in Afghanistan and Iran Croon Helm.
8. Izutsu, T. 1964. God and Man in the Koran: Aspects of the Koranic Weltanschauuang Tokyo: Keio University.
9. Fisher M. and M. Abedi. 1990: Debating Muslims: Cultural Dialogues in Postmodernity and Tradition. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
10. David, P. 2001. Horse of Karbala: Muslim Devotional Life in India and Pakistan. New York: Palgrave.
11. Uberoi, J.P.S. 1996. Religion, Civil Society and the State. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
12. Olivier, R. 1996. The Failure of Political Islam. MA: Harvard University Press.
13. Olivier, R. 1986. Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge University Press.
14. David B. E. 2002. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. California: University of California Press.
15. Mansoor M. 1992. Class, Politics and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press.
16. Ali, S. 1972. Shahadat (Martyrdom).
17. Ayesha, J. 2001. Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
18. Syed R.N. 1994. The Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution: The Jamaat-I-Islami of Pakistan. London: I.B. Taurus and Publishers.
19. Emyrus, P. 1967. ‘Some Structural Aspects of the Feud Among the Cyrenacia’ Africa.
20. Michael, G. 1996. Lords of the Lebanese Marches: Violence and Narrative in an Arab Society. London: I.B. Taurus.
21. Sadia, T. 1997. ‘The State, Fundamentalism and Civil Society’, In Neelam Hussain, et. al. (eds.): Engendering the Nation State.
22. Talal, A. 1993. Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
23. Smadar, L. 1990. The Poetics of Military Occupation. California: University of California Press.
24. Roy, M. 1985. Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iran New York: Pantheon Books.
25. Eliz, S. et. al. 2000. Religious Minorities in Iran. Cambridge University Press.
Course SOC 219 (c): Area Study: China
1. Sociological theories and the study of China
a) Approaches to China: Marxist and Weberian
b) Mao’s Conception of Society, Social Science and Social Change
2. Kinship and Family:
a) Changes in Land and Lineage Structure
b) Redefining Social Roles
3. Rural-urban continuum:
a) Restructuring Village Communities
b) De-urbanization and the Role of Cities
a) Readjustment of Class Hierarchy
b) New Status Symbols
5. Values and Society:
a) Religious Symbols: Old and New
b) China’s Model of Development, Evolution and Revolution
1. Meskill, J. (ed.). 1965. The Pattern of Chinese History, Boston: Heath & Co., (chapters 2, 4 and 6).
2. Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, 1954. New York: International Publishers, Vol. I pp. 13-62; 26-77; Vol. II: pp. 13-53; 74-76. Vol. III: pp. 72-101; 102-191; Vol. IV: pp. 12-20; 63-93, Vol. V: pp. 411-24.
3. Schram, S. (ed.). 1974. Mao Tse-tung Unrehearsed, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, pp. 7-47; 61-83; 96-124; 158-230.
4. Freedman, M. (ed.). 1970. Family and Kinship in Chinese Society. Stanford University Press. Pp. 21-138; 163-87.
5. Levy, M. J.1963. The Family Evolution in Modern China. New York: Octagon Books.
6. Yang, C.K. 1965. Chinese Communist Society: The Family and the Village. Camb, Mass: M.I.T. Press.
7. Schurmann, F. 1966. Ideology and Organization in Communist China. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Chapters 1, 6, and 7).
8. Vogel, E. 1969. Canton Under Communism. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
9. Needham, J. 1957. The Past in China’s Present. London: Far East Reporter Publication.
10. Levenson, J.R. 1964. Modern China and its Confucian Past. New York: Anchor Books. (Chapters 1, 7, 10 and 11).
Course SOC 220: Sociology of Science
1. Introduction to Problems of the Sociology of Science
2. Origin of Modern European Science: Society and the Relation of Man and Nature
3. Functionalist Theory of Science: Norms, Productivity and Rewards
4. Marxist Theory of Science and Society: A Case Study
5. Structuralist Theory of Science: Paradigm or Gestalt
6. Ethnography of the Laboratory
1. Mulkay, M. 1980. “Sociology of Science in the West”. Current Sociology, 28(3), pp. 1-170.
2. Khorr-Cetina and Michael M. (ed.) 1983, Science Observed: Perspectives on the Social Study of Science. London: Sage Publications. Pp. 115-203.
3. Debus, A.G. 1978. Man and Nature in the Renaissance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
4. Merton, R. K. 1979. Science, Technology and Society in Seventeenth Century England. (2nd ed.). New York: Howard Forting.
5. Uberoi, J.P.S. 1978, Science and Culture. Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 24-67.
6. Merton, R. K. 1973. The Sociology of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Chapters 5, 13, 14, and 21).
7. Hessen, B. 1971. “The Social and Economic Roots of Newton’s Principia”, in N.I. Bukharin, et. al., Science at the Cross Roads. London: Frank Cass, pp. 147-212.
8. Kuhn, T.S. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. (2nd ed.), Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
9. Pauli, W. 1935. “The Influence of Archetypal Ideas on the Scientific Theories of Kepler”, in C.G. Jung and W. Pauli, The Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 147-240.
10. Latour, B. and Steve, W. 1971. Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts. London: Sage.
11. Visvanathan, S. 1985. Organizing for Science. Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Chapter 5).
Course SOC 221: Agrarian Sociology
1. Understanding Agrarian Sociology:
(a) Ideas, interests and theories
(b) Issues of classification
2. Pre-capitalist forms of production and the transition debate:
(a) Surplus appropriation
(b) Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism
3. Commercialisation of agriculture, agrarian crisis and food sovereignty:
(a) Technology and production
(b) Labour and work-discipline
(c) Inequalities (GM seeds, farmer's suicides and food sovereignty)
4. Colonial land settlements and reforms:
(a) Colonial land settlements
(b) Redistributive and Market-led reforms
5. Agrarian Conflict:
(a) Forms of resistance
(b) Peasant organizations and ideologies
(c) 'Land-grabs' and dispossession
1. Beteille, A. 1974. Studies in Agrarian Social Structure. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Chapters 4-6).
2. Bloch, M. 1965. Feudal Society. Vol. I. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Part 4).
3. Coulborn, R. (Ed.) 1956. Feudalism in History. Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Chapter by Thorner, D.).
4. Breman, J. 1993. Beyond Patronage and Exploitation. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Chapters 16-19)
5. Rodney, H. 1973. Bond Men Made Free. London: Methuen. (Chapter 1).
6. Frykenberg. R.E. (eds.). 1979. Land Control and Social Structure in Indian History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. (Chapter by Hasan, N.)
7. Shanin, T. (ed.). 1987. Peasants and Peasant Societies. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. (Chapters 9, 26, 35, 39 and 44).
8. Lenin, V.I. 1956. The Development of Capitalism in Russia. Moscow: Progress Publishers. (Chapters 1-4).
9. Rodney, H. 1976. in The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism. (Introduction). New Delhi: Aakar.
10. Rudra, A. 'Emerging Class Structure in Indian Agriculture.' 1988. In Rural Poverty in South Asia. Srinivasan, T. N. and P. Bardhan (Eds.). New York: Columbia University Press.
11. Kapadia, K. 1995. Siva and Her Sisters. Oxford: Westview Press. (Chapter 8).
12. Rudra, A. 1994. 'Unfree Labour and Indian Agriculture.' In Agrarian Questions. Basu, K. (Ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
13. Chakravarti, A. 2001. Social Power and Everyday Class Relations: Agrarian Transformation in North Bihar. New Delhi: Sage. (Chapter 4).
14. Dubash, N. 2001. Tubewell Capitalism: Groundwater Development and Agrarian Change in Gujarat. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Introduction and Part 1).
15. Verdery, K. 2003. The Vanishing Hectare: Property and Value in Postsocialist Transylvania. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. (Introduction and Part 1).
16. Deshpande, R.S. and S. Arora (Eds.). 2011. Agrarian Crisis and Farmer Suicides. New Delhi: Sage. (Chapters 1-3, 5, 7).
17. Padhi, R. 2012. Those Who Did Not Die: Impact of the Agrarian Crisis on Women in Punjab. New Delhi: Sage. (Introduction, 1-3).
18. Vasavi, A.R. 2009. 'Suicides and the making of India’s agrarian distress.' South African Review of Sociology. 40(1): 124-38.
19. Vasavi, A.R. 1994. '“Hybrid Times, Hybrid People”: Culture and Agriculture in South India.' 29(2): 283-300.
20. Edelman, M. 2014. 'Food sovereignty: forgotten genealogies and future regulatory challenges.' The Journal of Peasant Studies. (41) 6: 959-78.
21. Agarwal, B. 2014. 'Food sovereignty, food security and democratic choice: critical contradictions, difficult conciliations.' The Journal of Peasant Studies. 41(6): 1247-1268.
23. Gidwani, V. 2008. Capital, Interrupted: Agrarian Development and the Politics of Work in India. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press (Introduction, 1-2).
24. Sinha, B.K. and Pushpendra (ed.). 2000. Land Reforms in India, Vol. 5: An Unfinished Agenda. New Delhi: Sage. (Chapters 1, 2, 7 and 8).
25. Borras, S. and J. Franco. 2010. ‘Contemporary Discourses and Contestations around Pro-Poor Land Policies and Land Governance.’ Journal of Agrarian Change. 10(1): 1-32.
26. Fairbairn, M. 2014 “‘Like gold with yield:” evolving intersections between farmland and finance.’ The Journal of Peasant Studies. 41(5): 777-795.
27. Dhanagare, D. N. 1983. Peasant Movements in India 1920-1950. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Introduction, 1, 5-7)
28. Scott, J. 1990. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Chapters 4, 5, and 8).
29. Edelman, M. 1999. Peasants Against Globalization: Rural Social Movements in Costa Rica. Stanford: Stanford University Press. (Introduction, 1, 2 and Conclusion).
30. Smith, G. 1989. Livelihood and Resistance: Peasants and the Politics of Land in Peru. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Introduction, 1, 2 and 8).
31. Ray, R. and M. Katzenstein. 2005. (Eds). Social Movements in India: Poverty, Power and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Chapters 6-8).
32. Hall, D. 2013. 'Primitive Accumulation, Accumulation by Dispossession and the Global Land Grab.' Third World Quarterly. 34(9): 1582-1604.
33. Walker, K. 2006. ‘“Gangster Capitalism” and Peasant Protest in China: The Last Twenty Years.’ The Journal of Peasant Studies. 33(1): 1-33.
Course SOC 222: Sociology of Law
I. Introduction to Jurisprudence:
a) Legal Positivism and Natural Law Theory
b) Philosophies of Law/Justice
c) Critical Legal Studies, Feminist Jurisprudence, etc.
2. Sociological and Anthropological Jurisprudence
a) Legal Evolutionism
b) Relativism and Law
c) Legal Pluralism
3. The Political Economy of Law
a) Law and Ideology
b) Law and Power
c) Property and Law
d) Courts as Social Institutions
4. Law and Society in India
a) Historical Processes
b) Contemporary Concerns
c) The Indian Constitution in Practice
d) Critical Analysis of SC Judgements
1. Freeman. M.D.A. (ed.). 2001 Lloyd's Introduction to Jurisprudence. 7th ed. London: Sweet and Maxwell. (Chapters 2,3,6,13,14, with selected extracts).
2. Kapur, Ratna (ed.). 1996. Feminist Terrains in Legal Domains. New Delhi: Kali for Women. (Chapter 4).
3. Cotterrell, R. (ed.). 2001. Sociological Perspectives on Law. Aldershot: Ashgate. (Vol. I & II, selected chapters).
4. Sarat, A. 2004. The Blackwell Companion to Law and Society. Oxford: Blackwells. (Selected chapters).
5. Scheppele, K.L. 1994. Legal Theory and Social Theory, Annual Review of Sociology 20: 383-4065.
6. Moore, S.F. 2001. Certainties Undone: Fifty Turbulent Years of Legal Anthropology, 1949-1999, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (NS), 7: 95-116.
7. Newman, K. 1983. Law and Economic Organisation. Cambridge: CUP. (Chapters 1-2).
8. Geertz, C. 1983. Local Knowledge: Fact and Law in Comparative Perspective. In Geertz, Local Knowledge. New York: Basic Books.
9. Wilson, R. 2001. The Politics of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
10. Hay, D. 1975. Property, Authority and the Criminal Law. In Douglas Hay, Peter Linebaugh et. al., Albion’s Fatal Tree. New York: Pantheon Books.
11. Thompson, E.P. 1975. Whigs and Hunters. New York: Pantheon Books (Epilogue on the Rule of Law).
12. Hall, S. et. al. 1978. Policing the Crises: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. London: Macmillan Education Ltd.
13. Singh, U. 2007. The State, Democracy and Anti-Terror Laws in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
14. Foucault, M. 1977. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
15. Comaroff, J. and Comaroff, J. 2006. Law and Disorder in the Postcolony. Chicago: University of Chicago. (Introduction).
16. Ghai, Y. Robin, L. and Francis, S. 1989. The Political Economy of Law: A Third World Reader. Delhi: Oxford University Press, (selected chapters).
17. Chatrapati, S. 1986. Common Property, Common Poverty, Delhi: OUP.
18. Povinelli, E. 2002. The Cunning of Recognition: Indigenous Alterities and the Making of Australian Multiculturalism. Durham: Duke University Press.
19. Galanter, M. 1989. Law and Society in Modern India. Delhi: OUP (Introduction by Rajeev Dhawan and selected chapters).
20. Baxi, U. 1982. The Crisis of the Indian Legal System. New Delhi: Vikas.
21. Deva, I. (ed.) 2005. Sociology of Law, Delhi: OUP. (Chapter 8).
22. Austin, G. 2000. Working a Democratic Constitution: The Indian Experience. Delhi: OUP.
23. Agnes, F. 1999. Law and Gender Inequality: The Politics of Women’s Rights in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
24. Menski, W. 2003. Hindu Law: Beyond Tradition and Modernity. New Delhi: OUP. (Selected chapters).
Course SOC 223: Medical Sociology
This course is intended to provide students with an overview of the sociology of health, illness and medicine in different social and cultural settings. It aims to offer the students basic orientation in major theoretical perspectives in medical sociology that examine the construction of medical knowledge, cross-cultural comparisons of notions of body, health/illness and practices of health care. It seeks to familiarize the students with key issues and debates around methodologies, ethics and politics of health in a global context. Teachers teaching in a specific year can choose to do one of the debates listed in section 4 (b).
1. Body, Medicine and Society: Theoretical Perspectives
a) Cultural Construction of Medical Reality
b) Experiences of Body, Health and Illness
c) Governing Bodies and Bio Power
2. Narrating Health and Illness
a) Patients, Practitioners, Media
c) Narrative as evidence
3. Culture, Medicine and Medical practice
a) Biomedicine in cross-cultural contexts
b) Pharmaceutical Practices
c) Syncretic Medical Reality
4. Politics of Global Health and Health Policies
a) State and Medicine
b) Health, Politics and Ethics: Global Debates
c) Death and Dying: Debates around Euthanasia
d) Organ Donations and Transplant
e) Chosen Bodies: Debate around abortions
1. Kleinman, Arthur. 1981. Patients and Healers in the Context of Culture: An Exploration of the Borderland between Anthropology and Medicine. Berkely: University of California Press.
2. Good, B. 1994. Medicine, Rationality, and Experience: An Anthropological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
3. Scheper-Huges, Nancy and Margaret Lock. 1986. The Mindful Body: A Prolegomenon to Future work in Medical Anthropology, Medical Anthropology Quarterly 1(1) 6-41.
4. Inhorn, Marcia. 2000. Defining Women’s health: Lessons from a Dozen Ethnographies, Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Vol. 20(3): 345-378.
5. Foucault, M. 1975. The Birth of the Clinic: Archaeology of Medical Perception. New York: Vintage Books.
6. Lindenbaum, S. and Margaret Lock Eds. 1993. Knowledge, Power, and Practice: The Anthropology of Medicine and Everyday Life. Berkeley, University of California Press. (Selected chapters).
7. Mattingly, Cheryl and Linda C. Garro. 2001. eds. Narrative and the Cultural Construction of Illness and Healing. Berkley: University of California Press. (Selected chapters).
8. Desjarlais, Robert. 1995. Struggling Along: The Possibilities for Experience among the Homeless Mentally Ill. American Anthropologist 96:886-901.
9. Radley, Allan and M. Bilig. 1996. Accounts of Health and Illness: Dilemmas and Representations, Sociology of Health and Illness, 18 (2) 220-240.
10. Bissell, Paul, Kath Ryan and Charles Morecroft. 2006. Narratives about illness and Medication: A neglected theme/new methodology within pharmacy practice research, Pharmacy World & Science 28 (2):54-60.
11. Gordon, Deborah and Margaret Lock eds. 1988. Biomedicine examined. Dordrecht: Kulwer Academic Publishers.
12. Mol, Annemarie. 2002. The Body Multiple: Ontology of Medical Practice. Durham: Duke University Press.
13. Ecks Stefan and S. Basu. 2009. The Unlicensed Lives of Antidepressants in India: Generic Drugs, Unqualified Practitioners, and Floating Prescriptions’, Transcultural Psychiatry 46: 86-106.
14. Bode, Maarten. 2008. Taking Traditional Knowledge to the Market: The Modern Image of the Ayurvedic and Unani Industry, 1980-2000. Delhi: Orient Blackswan.
15. Khare, R.S. 1996. Dava, Daktar, and Dua: Anthropology of Practiced Medicine in India. Social Science & Medicine 43(5): 837-848.
16. Arnold, David. 1993. Colonizing the Body: State, Medicine and Epidemic in 19th century India. Berkley: University of California Press.
17. Nichter, Mark. 2008. Global Health: Why cultural perceptions, social representations and biopolitics matter. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
18. Fassin, Didier. 2007. When Bodies Remember: Experiences and Politics of AIDS in South Africa. Berkley: University of California Press.
19. Fernand, Melgar. 2006. Exit: The Right to Die. First Run-Icarus Film, Brooklyn, New York.
20. Seale, Cleave and Julia, Addington-Hall. 1994. Euthanasia: Why people want to die earlier, Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39(5): 647-654.
21. Scheper-Hughes, Nancy and Loïc Wacquant, eds. 2002. Commodifying Bodies. London: Sage.
22. Sharp, Lesley. 2007. Bodies, Commodities and Biotechnologies: Death, Mourning and Scientific Desire in the Realm of Human Organ Transfer. New York: Columbia University Press.
23. Kulczycki, Andrzej. 1999. The Abortion Debate in the World Arena. New York: Routledge.
24. Rapp, Ryna. 2000. Testing Women, Testing the Foetus: The Social Impact of Amniocentesis in America. New York: Routledge.
Course SOC 224: Sociology of Media
This course will provide a close reading of some of the key theoretical concepts, paradigms, and debates within Media Studies. We will look at media from a sociological perspective, approaching mass media as a tool that aids in constructing the political realm, the public sphere, and subjectivities. We will examine different traditions within the discipline and within sub disciplines such as film and cultural studies. Three major sub-themes will guide us throughout the course: a) Cultural studies b) Public sphere c) Semiotics. We will interrogate these dominant paradigms for what they might offer to our contemporary political, social and cultural moment and in particular to readings of media in India and throughout the global south.
1. Introduction and Theoretical approaches to media studies
a) Cultural studies
b) Public sphere
2. The politics of media
a) Media and political processes (elections, citizenship etc)
b) Media as a supporter or watchdog of the state
c) Media and the construction of political reality
3. The Media Industry
a) Media as business: ownership, profits
b) State ownership and influence
4. Media and Globalisation
a) Neoliberalism and its implications
b) Transnational and diasporic visual culture
5. Media and Identity
a) Construction of subjectivities
b) Audience reception
6. New media
a) New media as technology
b) New media and alternative identities, politics
Note: In any one year, four out of topics (2-6) will be taught.
1. Arato, A. and E. Gebhardt. 1988. The Essential Frankfurt School Reader. New York: The Cosssntinuum Publishing Company.
2. Benjamin, W. 1969. The Work of Art in the age of Mechanical Reproduction. Illuminations. New York; Schocken Books.
3. Williams, R. 1962. Communications. Penguin: Harmondsworth.
4. Hall, S. (1980) ‘Cultural Studies: Two Paradigms’, Media, Culture and Society 2, 57-72
5. Barthes, Roland. Mythologies. Hill and Wang, 1972.
6. Appadurai, A. 1986. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, Cambridge University Press.
7. Herman, Edward S. and Chomsky, Noam. 1988. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of Mass Media, Pantheon Books.
8. Rajiva, Lila. 2005. The Language of Empire: Abu Gharib and the American Media. Monthly Review Press.
9. John Corner, Dick Pelseds. 2000. Media and the Restyling of Politics: Consumerism, Celebrity, and Cynicism. London: Sage.
10. Desai, A.R. 1948. The Role of the Press in the Development of Indian Nationalism. In Social Background of Indian Nationalism. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.
11. Kohli, V. The Indian Media Business. London: Sage, 2003.
12. Jeffrey, Robin. 2000. India’s Newspaper Revolution. Capitalism, Politics and the Indian Language, NY: St. Martins Press.
13. Kumar, KJ. 2010. Mass Communication in India, Jaico Publishing House.
14. Lelyveld, D. 1994. “Upon the Subdominant: Administering Music on All-India Radio”. Social Text.
15. Gans, HJ. 2004. Deciding What’s News. Northwestern University Press.
16. Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at Large: The Cultural Dimensions of Globalisation, Oxford University Press.
17. Larkin, B. “Indian Films and Nigerian Lovers: Media and the Creation of Paralell Modernities”. Africa, Vol.67, 1997.
18. James Curran and Myung-Jin Park(eds.). 2000. De-westernizing Media Studies, Routledge.
19. Shohat, Ella and Robert Stam. 1994. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media, Routledge.
20. Uberoi, Patricia. 2006. Freedom and Destiny: Gender, Family, and Popular Culture in India. Oxford University Press.
21. Blackman, Lisa and Valerie Walkerdine. 2000. Mass Hysteria: Critical Psychology and Media Studies, Palgrave.
22. Hall, Stuart. 2003. “The Whites of their eyes: racist ideologies in the media.” In Gail Hymes and Jean M. Hume zeds Gender, Race, and Class in Media: a Text Reader, Sage.
23. Said, Edward. 1981. Covering Islam: How the Media and Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. New York: Pantheon.
24. McRobbie, Angela. 2004. “Post Feminism and Popular Culture”. Feminist Media Studies.
25. C. Berry and F. Martin eds. 2003. Mobile Cultures: New Media in Queer Asia, Duke University Press.
26. Khan, R. and D. Keller. 2004. “New Media and Internet Activism: From the “Battle of Seattle to Blogging”. New Media and Society.
27. Grossman, L. 2009. Iran Protests: Twitter, the Medium of the Movement. Time.com.
28. Miller, C.C. 2006. “A beast in the field: The Google Maps Mashup as GIS/2”. The International Journal of Geographic Information.